Thanks to the power of the printing press, literature could be made and sold for a healthy profit, and novels like Robinson Crusoe and Gulliver's Travels were among the first bestsellers, with the public hungrily devouring their first print runs within weeks of publication. In what is now recognised as a fairly standard practice, the financial success of these novels immediately prompted publishers to put out numerous follow-up stories to cash in on the interest of the first.
Gulliver's Travels , in particular, inspired all sorts of spin-off tales and sequels, none of them written by the original's author, Jonathan Swift. These included Memoirs Of the Court Of Lilliput , written by an anonymous author and published in , and The New Gulliver , written by Pierre Desfontaines in , which, like a modern-day reboot, saw Lemuel Gulliver's son, John, take up his father's mantle and head off on a series of fantastical adventures overseas.
The sequel, then, became a natural by-product of a book's financial success, and soon became a common publishing phenomenon, even if the results were seldom highly regarded by critics or as memorable as the books that inspired them. Cinematic sequels, meanwhile, are as old as the practice of filmmaking itself. By the lates, the Hollywood filmmaking machine had whirred fully into life, and the creation of sequels began in earnest.
The first "talkie", The Jazz Singer , prompted Warner to hurriedly create a sequel, The Singing Fool , which made even more money than the first film did. While James Whale's Bride Of Frankenstein is justly regarded as a classic, films like Dracula's Daughter , Son Of Dracula, and Son Of Frankenstein are little more than amusing romps, and roundly lack the powerful imagery and atmosphere of their predecessors.
The reception of RKO's King Kong prompted the studio to rush a sequel into production to cash in on the public's appetite for big apes. Called The Son Of Kong , it was shot and released nine months after the first film, was hugely inferior, and did only modest business.
King Kong was, of course, one of the major influences on 's Godzilla , which went on to become one of the longest running film series in history. The pattern of sequels riding in the wake of success has endured ever since. Moving into the 60s, the popularity of Dr No , the first adaptation of an Ian Fleming James Bond novel, was lucrative enough to prompt production company EON to adapt all the author's other novels at the rate of roughly one per year.
When the wellspring of Fleming novels ran dry, they simply began creating new stories of their own. It wasn't until the 70s, however, that the modern, numbered sequel came into being. The new era of big studio pictures, which saw directors like Francis Ford Coppola and Steven Spielberg leap to prominence, brought with it The Godfather Part II and French Connection II , both of which, ironically, are rare examples of sequels that compare positively with their predecessors.
The birth of the high-concept movie and for more about that particular branch of filmmaking, see Paul Martinovic's article, linked below , which inarguably began with Spielberg's unexpected summer hit, Jaws , marked the start of what I often uncharitably refer to as the landfill sequel. After several years of planning and construction, the new park opened on July 17, Disneyland was a totally new kind of park. It has been used as a pattern for every amusement park built since its opening, becoming internationally famous and attracting hundreds of millions of visitors. Walt said that Disneyland would never be completed as long as there was imagination left in the world, and that statement remains true today.
New attractions are added regularly, and Disneyland is even more popular now than it was in Plans that Walt left behind carried the Company for a number of years under the supervision of Roy Disney. Disney began work on educational films and materials in a big way with the start of an educational subsidiary in After the success of Disneyland, it was only natural for Walt to consider another park on the East Coast. Prior to his death, the Company purchased land in Florida, and the Walt Disney World project, located on some 28, acres near Orlando, was announced.
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It opened October 1, In Florida, the Company had the space it lacked in California. Finally there was room to create a destination resort, unencumbered by the urban sprawl that had grown up around Disneyland. Walt Disney World would include not only a Magic Kingdom theme park like Disneyland but also hotels, campgrounds, golf courses, and shopping villages.
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It did not take long for Walt Disney World to become the premier vacation destination in the world. Roy O. While he died before the plans could be refined, they were brought out again in a few years, and in ground was broken for the new park in Florida. WED Enterprises later renamed Walt Disney Imagineering , the design and development division for the parks, had several projects in the works during the early s.
In addition to designing Epcot, it was hard at work on plans for Tokyo Disneyland, the first foreign Disney park. Tokyo Disneyland opened April 15, , and was an immediate success in a country that had always loved anything Disney. Now that the Japanese had their own Disneyland, they flocked to it in increasing numbers.
Moviemaking also was changing in America in the early s. Audiences were diminishing for the family films that had been the mainstay of the Company for many years, and Disney was not meeting the competition for films that attracted the huge teenage and adult market. The efforts to keep the company from being broken up ended when Michael Eisner and Frank Wells became chairman and president, respectively.
The new management team immediately saw ways for Disney to maximize its assets. The Company had left network television in to prepare for the launch of a cable network, The Disney Channel. Films from the Disney library were selected for the syndication market, and some of the classic animated films were released on video cassette. Using the sell-through technique, Disney classics soon reached the top of the all-time best-seller lists. The late s brought new innovations to the Parks.
More resort hotels opened in and Filmmaking hit new heights in as Disney, for the first time, led Hollywood studios in box-office gross. Disney moved into new areas by starting Hollywood Pictures and acquiring the Wrather Corp. In merchandising, Disney purchased Childcraft and opened numerous highly successful and profitable Disney Stores.
Hollywood Records was formed to offer a wide selection of recordings ranging from rap to movie soundtracks.
Over in France, the park now known as Disneyland Paris opened on April 12, Eagerly anticipated, the beautifully designed park attracted almost 11 million visitors during its first year. Disneyland Paris is complemented by six uniquely designed resort hotels and a campground. Toy Story pioneered computer-animation techniques, and was followed by successful sequels. By restoring the historic New Amsterdam Theatre on 42nd Street, Disney became the catalyst for a successful makeover of the famous Times Square area. By , there were more than Disney Stores worldwide, and by that number was up to In Florida, the first home sites were sold in the new city of Celebration, located next to Walt Disney World.
The Best Films Year by Year 1927-Present - Full Color
Eventually, 20, people would call Celebration their home. An Asian area opened at Animal Kingdom in Back in California, Tomorrowland at Disneyland was redesigned in As the world moved toward a new century, Epcot became the host of Millennium Celebration, Test Track the longest and fastest Disney park attraction opened, and other attractions were revised and updated. Continuing collaborations with Pixar brought the computer-animated blockbuster Monsters, Inc.
DVD releases became increasingly popular, especially when the company began adding generous amounts of bonus material for viewers. For the first time, in , Walt Disney Parks and Resorts opened two new theme parks in the same year. Before his death in , Disney was in the midst of many ideas.
A very short history of cinema
In the mid s his attention was in improving the urban life in America. It was here that a whole new Disney world of entertainment with a new amusement theme park, motel-hotel resort vacation centre and EPCOT were planned. Walt did not live to see this but his brother would finish Disney World in and the Epcot Center in Both the institutions were known to Disney since his early days and were facing financial difficulties at the time. If I can help provide a place to develop the talent of the future, I think I will have accomplished something. His 22 competing awards begin with the animated short film Flowers and Trees in and ending with the posthumous Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day in Add to that he has been awarded 4 honorary awards taking his tally to a whopping Walt Disney was the recipient of both these honours.
The second-most decorated person after Walt Disney in the history of Academy Awards is art director and production designer Cedric Gibbons. Gibbons won 11 Best Art Design Oscars out of 38 nominations. He also designed the Oscar statuette itself, so it seems only fair to send him home with a few. The honour for the second most nominations are not with Cedric Gibbons.
That honour goes to composer John Williams who has 50 nominations with 5 wins. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Sign in. Log into your account. Password recovery. Forgot your password? Get help.
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