This was a vision to unite the tribes East of the Mississippi as an independent nation.
Read more about Tecumseh. Geronimo : Geronimo was the leader of the Apache tribe. His wife and family were killed by Mexican soldiers and sparked is vengeance and resistance against them. Read more about Geronimo. He was involved in the War of and integral to the Black Hawk war. Read more about Black Hawk. He maintained peace with Americans for several years until members of his family were killed. Read more about Cochise. Hiawatha : Hiawatha was the leader of either the Onondagas or the Mohawk tribe of Indians. He was an integral part to gathering the tribes as part of the Iroquois Confederacy.
Read more about Hiawatha. Will Rogers : Will Rogers was one of the most famous performers of the s. He started as a cowboy and then performed with the Wild West show before getting involved with movies. Read more about Will Rogers. Chief Pontiac : Pontiac was chief of the Ottawa Indian tribe. The tribe was allies to the French during the French and Indian war. Read more about Chief Pontiac. He was known for fighting for the rights of Indian chiefs rather than just fighting the army. Read more about Red Cloud.
Chief Seattle : Chief Seattle was of the Duwamish people and reportedly gave a great speech in that brought everyone together. He was a large man and a great leader. Read more about Chief Seattle. Many brave and wise Indian leaders appeared and gained respect and fame in the late 18th and early 19th century.
Only a few of them, however, had the diplomatic skills and charisma to go beyond leading their own bands and their own tribes to form and lead intertribal alliances. Filled with bitterness, he swore vengeance on the Long Knives. By the early s, white Americans were traveling down the Ohio River, turning north and settling on Shawnee hunting grounds.
Tecumseh led raiding parties on white settlements and helped defeat two armies sent out to subdue the Indians. At the Battle of Fallen Timbers, Tecumseh was the greatest rallying force for the Indians, many times stopping retreats and inspiring them to stand and fight, but he could not prevent a crushing defeat.
Red Cloud - Wikipedia
Nor could he prevent chiefs of other tribes from signing the Treaty of Greenville, thus ceding all of what is now the state of Ohio and part of Indiana to the whites. After that there was a period of relative peace between and But during those years, William Henry Harrison, a military man who became governor of Indiana Territory, used liquor, oratory and ceremonial pomp to persuade various chiefs to surrender 50 million acres.
By , Tecumseh was traveling between the Appalachians and the Mississippi persuading other tribes to join his confederacy. They have driven us from the great salt water, forced us over the mountains and would shortly push us into the lakes. But we are determined to go no farther.
Within three years the brothers had built Prophetsville, a very large town where the Tippecanoe River flows into the Wabash, and had persuaded many chiefs that this was the last chance to stop the white encroachment.
But in , some Ohio Valley chiefs signed the Treaty of Fort Wayne, ceding many square miles of land. Tecumseh decided it was time for action and told Harrison he must give back the land. The governor, of course, refused. Tecumseh thought the confederacy was not quite ready for military action and withdrew. He went south to get the final agreement from a number of tribes to join the alliance. British Indian agents were encouraging an Indian uprising against the Americans. In , Harrison decided to take action while Tecumseh was away, visiting the southern tribes Tecumseh had instructed Tenskwatawa not to fight Harrison, but the strong-arm governor provoked a battle at Prophetstown by moving troops to within yards of the town.
Insulted, the young warriors fought on November 7, The Americans had destroyed the great alliance. Tecumseh rallied many Indians to the British cause and helped capture Detroit during the War of , but he fell on October 5, , at the Battle of the Thames near present-day Thamesville, Ontario, Canada , while shouting encouragement to his warriors. The leading proponent of Indian unity was gone, and there was no one to replace him to oppose white settlement east of the Mississippi River. Half a century passed, and whites began to appear in droves west of the Mississippi.
There could be peace if the white man stayed out of Sioux hunting grounds and stopped using the Bozeman Trail. The government called a council for the spring of at Fort Laramie, on the Platte River not far from the Wyoming-Nebraska border. Carrington had arrived with soldiers to build forts on the Bozeman Trail. The Federal peace commission learned that there could be no peace unless a treaty had the support of Red Cloud, who was respected not only by the Oglalas but also by the Bruls and other Sioux and by their Cheyenne allies. He then stormed out of the Laramie meeting. A real war began, with Red Cloud the head soldier.
He gathered lodges of Sioux and Cheyennes in the cause, which provided him with about warriors, and carried on continuous guerrilla warfare along the length of the Bozeman Trail. Seventy white people were killed, 20 wounded, and horses, mules and cattle were taken. In a few cases, where a chief met with a violent death, some ambitious man has taken advantage of the confusion to thrust himself upon the tribe and, perhaps with outside help, has succeeded in usurping the leadership.
Red Cloud was born about near the forks of the Platte River. He was one of a family of nine children whose father, an able and respected warrior, reared his son under the old Spartan regime. The young Red Cloud is said to have been a fine horseman, able to swim across the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers, of high bearing and unquestionable courage, yet invariably gentle and courteous in everyday life.
American Legends Series
This last trait, together with a singularly musical and agreeable voice, has always been characteristic of the man. The little fellow, instead of going for advice and help to his grandfather, as most Indian boys would have done, began quietly to practice throwing the lariat.
- Safe and Healthy School Environments;
- Understanding the Enneagram: The Practical Guide to Personality Types?
- An Atheist in Hell: A Play About the Afterlife of a Great Thinker?
- Two Weeks With God!
- Articles Featuring Native American Indian Chiefs From History Net Magazines.
- Customer Reviews.
- Morning to Midnight in the Saddle: Civil War Letters of a Soldier in Wilders Lightning Brigade;
In a little while he was able to lasso the colt. He was dragged off his feet at once, but hung on, and finally managed to picket him near the teepee. When the big boys drove the herd of ponies to water, he drove his colt with the rest. Presently the pony became used to him and allowed himself to be handled. The boy began to ride him bareback; he was thrown many times, but persisted until he could ride without even a lariat, sitting with arms folded and guiding the animal by the movements of his body.
The old men, his contemporaries, have often related to me how Red Cloud was always successful in the hunt because his horses were so well broken. He was twelve years old, he told me, when he was first permitted to take part in the chase, and found to his great mortification that none of his arrows penetrated more than a few inches. Excited to recklessness, he whipped his horse nearer the fleeing buffalo, and before his father knew what he was about, he had seized one of the protruding arrows and tried to push it deeper. The furious animal tossed his massive head sidewise, and boy and horse were whirled into the air.
Fortunately, the boy was thrown on the farther side of his pony, which received the full force of the second attack. I once asked Red Cloud if he could recall having ever been afraid, and in reply he told me this story.
Native American Faces
When he had brought down his game, he noted carefully every feature of his surroundings so that he might at once detect anything unusual, and tied his horse with a long lariat to the horn of the dead bison, while skinning and cutting up the meat so as to pack it to camp. Every few minutes he paused in his work to scrutinize the landscape, for he had a feeling that danger was not far off. Your email address will not be published. Primary Menu Skip to content.
Related American Legends: The Life of Red Cloud
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved